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今冬流感强势 疾控部门给出六点建议

作者: 责任编辑:张雨婷 2018-01-12 14:30:55 来源: 阿拉善日报

自入冬以来,我盟各地流感患者人数一直居高不下,各大医院及诊所经常出现排长队等候就诊的情况,部分治疗流感病毒类药物也时常出现断货情况。针对此次流感高发季,记者走访了盟中心医院、盟疾控中心等机构做了了解。

盟中心医院、盟疾控中心病毒室分别为我盟唯一国家级流感样病例监测哨点医院和流感监测网络实验室,2017年共报告流感样病例(ILI)8091例,较2014~2016年同期有所增加,且进入12月以来,呈现快速上升趋势。盟疾控中心流病科科长李洁告诉记者:“根据哨点医院监测数据显示,冬季以来我盟进入流感高峰季,且仍呈现持续上升趋势,门急诊流感病例比例高于过去3年同期水平,病原学检测结果显示主要流行株为乙型yamagata系(BY型),甲型H1N1与H3N2共同循环流行。根据历年趋势研判,我盟流感高峰还将持续一段时间。”据李洁介绍,此次流行性感冒是由流感病毒引起的急性呼吸道传染病,临床主要表现为高热、乏力、头痛、全身肌肉酸痛等症状,而呼吸道症状轻微。此次感冒主要通过飞沫经呼吸道传播,也可通过接触被污染的手、日常用具等间接传播,传播途径极易实现。

在此次流感过程中,部分抗病毒类的药物在许多医院和药店均出现过断货的情况。针对此现象,盟中心医院药剂科药师王斌说:“患者用药前应先通过专业医院确定是普通感冒还是流感,其次治疗流感的药物目前大致有三种,而最近炒得比较火的奥司他韦只是其中一种,患者使用奥司他韦无效或者出现并发症等情况时可以使用帕拉米韦氯化钠注射液对症治疗。部分中成药在抗流感病毒方面与奥司他韦差异不大,甚至在缓解流感引起的流涕、头痛等方面优于奥司他韦等化学药物。所以患者出现发热和感冒症状时应理性、合理用药,不要盲目跟风。”

针对此次来势汹汹的流感,疾控部门建议居民做好六项预防措施。一是加强流感样病例管理,对体温超过38度,伴咳嗽咽痛等症状患者居家或住院治疗,休息期间避免参加集体活动和进入公共场所;二是学校及托幼机构强化每日晨午检制度、因病缺勤登记制度,发现流感样病例短期内异常增多,应向教育行政部门报告,同时向当地卫生部门报告;三是注意保持教室、宿舍、食堂等场所的空气流通,保持空气新鲜,集体单位和公共场所应定期打扫卫生,保持环境清洁;四是注意个人卫生,勤晾晒被褥、勤换衣、勤洗手,咳嗽和打喷嚏时用纸巾或袖子遮住口、鼻;五是对于实验室确诊的流感重症病例和出现流感样症状的慢性病患者、老年人等流感高危人群,要进行抗病毒药物治疗,药物可首选奥司他韦和扎那米韦;六是流感样病例暴发期间,慢性病患者、老年人、婴幼儿等高危人群要减少或避免参加集体活动。

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