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扎旗“水稻旱作”实现节水增粮增收

作者:白玉亮 责任编辑:包轶 2018-05-08 10:26:37 来源: 兴安日报

扎旗“水稻旱作”实现节水增粮增收

今年全旗推广旱作水稻10万亩,节水70%以上

4月26日,正值水稻泡田整地时节,但在扎赉特旗好力保镇五道河子农牧专业合作社的水稻地里,却看不到往年扶埂、泡田的设备。集中连片3000多亩的水稻地不像别人家被一条条地池埂隔开,一台台拖拉机带着播种施肥一体机驰骋在黑色的土地上,瞬间驶出很远,种子夹杂着化肥一同播撒在地里,不仅播种速度快,播深也一致,不知道的人还以为是在种玉米之类的作物。“水稻旱作”这一新的种植技术正在这里悄然兴起。

好力保镇副镇长张良此时正在进行技术指导。他告诉记者:“现在应用的这种水稻旱直播技术,就是为了便于机械化大面积播种作业,今年我们好力保镇仅旱作水稻种植面积就在2万亩以上。”

张良一边跟着机械检查种子深度,一边向记者介绍:“今年种植的旱植水稻,比往年常规种植省事儿多了,比如从开春开始清雪、扣棚、粉土、摆盘、下籽、苗期管理、搅浆平地、插秧、扬返青肥等,这些工序全省下了,每亩地至少能省下200元。水稻苗期旱长还有利于保证稻苗的扎根和蹲苗,增强抗旱能力和抗倒伏能力。”其实“水稻旱作”最大的亮点是节约水资源。张良介绍,旱植水稻前期播种不需要水,而且是干籽下地,“水稻旱种滴灌栽培技术的核心是节水,采用膜下滴灌水肥一体化技术,打破传统大水漫灌现象,达到节水效果。水稻常规栽培用水量为每亩地800立方米至1000立方米,主要包括叶面蒸腾、水面蒸发、地下渗漏三部分。‘水稻旱作’用水量只需200立方米至300立方米,比常规水稻栽培可节约用水70%以上。”据张良介绍,除草也很简单。由于覆黑色地膜,膜下不长草,只是在行间和苗眼长草,行间杂草可通过中耕犁中耕除草,苗眼少量杂草可通过人工除草。

“在去年大旱之年旱田几乎绝产的情况下,旱作水稻亩产达到600公斤,亩纯收入比种植玉米多600元左右,依然实现了稳产增收。”随同的五道河子村党支部书记杜文义说。

面对连年干旱、粮食价格波动、水资源匮乏等不利因素,2016年,扎赉特旗引进膜下滴灌水肥一体化节水高产高效栽培旱作水稻种植技术,试种的200亩水稻获得了亩产500公斤、亩纯收入800元至1000元的效益。受此鼓舞,去年扎赉特旗以音德尔镇、好力保镇为示范,推广旱作水稻1.1万亩。

今年,扎赉特旗将整合高标准农田、农业开发、粮食增产等农田水利项目,在全旗推广旱作水稻10万亩,力争到2020年打造百万亩绿色水稻产业基地,其中发展传统水稻70万亩,旱作水稻30万亩,水稻产业将成为扎赉特旗农民增收致富的重要支柱产业。

“水稻旱作”技术的推广,是扎赉特旗水稻种植史上的一大突破,让扎赉特旗走上了一条新型节水增粮增收的发展之路,为大面积发展水稻种植业开辟了全新的种植门路,将加快种植业结构调整步伐。

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